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Dental Information

Practitioner of dentistry

In most countries, to become a qualified dentist, one need several years of training in a university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education.

History

Arguably the first university was the Academy founded in 387 BC by the Greek philosopher Plato in the grove of Academes near Athens, where students were taught philosophy, mathematics and gymnastics.

The first European Medievaluniversities were established in Italy and France in the Middle Ages for the study of law, medicine, and theology. Before that, similar institutions already existed in the Islamic world, notably in Cairo. The most important Asian university was Nalanda, in Bihar, India, where the second century Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna was based. Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.

All mammals except the monotremes, the edentates, the pangolins, and the cetaceans have up to four distinct types of teeth, with a maximum number for each. These are the incisor, the canine, the premolar, and the molar. Mammals that have distinct types of teeth are heterodont; others are homodont. The number of teeth of each type is written as a dental formula.

The Commonwealth of Australiais the sixth largest country in the world (geographically), the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in Australasia. Australia includes the island of Tasmania, which is an Australian State. New Zealand is to the southeast; and Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor to its north. The name 'Australia' comes from the Latin phrase terra australis incognita ("unknown southern land").

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelandis a state consisting of the nations of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Also known as simply the United Kingdom (UK), it is situated just off the north-western coast of mainland Europe, surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Atlantic Ocean.

There is 5 years of undergraduate study before obtaining a B.D.S. degree. After graduating most dentists will enter a V.T. (vocational training) scheme, of either 1 or 2 years length, to receive their full The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. It was created on 5 July 1948 by Clement Attlee's Labour government, under health and housing minister Nye Bevan. The NHS followed on from the "Panel" system set up in 1911 under the aegis of Lloyd-George, and the primary care records are still stored in "Lloyd-George" envelopes although nowadays most working records in primary care are computerized. In the UK a dentist must register with the G.D.C. (General Dental Council), and meet their requirements as the governing body of the profession, before being allowed to practice.

The United States of America (U.S.A.)also referred to as the United States (U.S.), America, or the States, is a federal republic in North America and the Pacific Ocean (the islands of Hawaii, and the Aleutians). It extends from the Atlantic coast in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It shares land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south, shares a marine border with Russia in the west, and has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions around the world including Puerto Rico, Midway Atoll, and Guam. The country has fifty states, which have a level of local autonomy. Dentists obtain either a D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree after 4 years of postgraduate education. (That is another 4 on top of the 4 years of an undergraduate college.)

Specialties in dentistry such asOrthodonticsis the study of the alteration of the alignment of teeth. Orthodontic practice can generally be done for aesthetic reasons; however can be medical. Treatment includes braces, plates, retainers, head gear etc.

Orthodontists- An orthodontist is a dentist with additional specialist training in correcting defects in the teeth, also known as "malocclusions". American Orthodontists are usually members of the American Association of Orthodontists. Straightening of teeth, oral and maxillofacial surgery, pedodontics (treatment for children), periodontics (treatment of gum disease), prosthodontics (replacement of missing teeth by prostheses such as dentures, bridges and dental implants), operative dentistry (restoration of existing teeth), endodontics (root canal therapy), dental public health (study of dental epidemiology and social health policies), forensic odontologyForensic odontology deals with the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice.

The evidence that may be derived from teeth is the age (in children) and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong. This is done using dental records or ante-mortem (prior to death) photographs.

The other type of evidence- (gathering and use of dental evidence in law), oral radiology and oral pathology (study of oral and dentally related diseases) would require usually between 2-3 years of further formal university training after dental school. Specialists in these fields might be designated registrable (U.S. "Board Eligible") and can sometimes lay claim to exclusive titles such as orthodontist, oral surgeon, pedodontist, periodontist, prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local (U.S. "Board Certified") registry requirements.

Other dental "specialties" exists where no post-graduate formal university training is required: cosmetic dentistry, dental implant, temporal-mandibular joint therapy. These usually require the attendance of one or more "hotel courses" that typically last for one to several days. There are usually no restrictions on allowing these dentists to call themselves specialists in these fields when the "specialist" titles are not restrictive and registrable titles controlled by the local dental licensing bodies.

Dental Tidbit- The patron saint of dentists is Saint Appolonia, martyred in Alexandria by having all her teeth violently extracted, not, one would have thought, such a very desirable exempla.

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